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Monday, November 2, 2009

Event Sourcing and CQRS, Let's use it.

Last time, we started a very basic Event Sourcing/Domain Events/CQRS framework. Be careful, I made an edit in the nested DomainEvents+Handler<T>.Handles<E>() method, the AggregateRoot.Replay method will not work as is, but we won’t need it.

We’ll build an equally simplistic application for personal library management.

The Ubiquitous Language will be minimal.

A Book can be Registered with a Title and an ISBN.

A Book can be Lent to a Borrower at some Date for an Expected Time Span.

A Book can then be Returned. If it is Returned after Expected Time Span, the return is Late.

That’s enough for our first try.

The Command Context

The State Change Events

Here is the code for the three events that we found in the Ubiquitous language:

    public class BookRegistered

    {

        public readonly BookId Id;

        public readonly string Title;

        public readonly string Isbn;

 

        public BookRegistered(BookId id, string title, string isbn)

        {

            Id = id;

            Title = title;

            Isbn = isbn;

        }

    }

 

    public class BookLent

    {

        public readonly BookId Id;

        public readonly string Borrower;

        public readonly DateTime Date;

        public readonly TimeSpan ExpectedDuration;

 

        public BookLent(BookId id, string borrower, DateTime date,

               TimeSpan expectedDuration)

        {

            Id = id;

            Borrower = borrower;

            Date = date;

            ExpectedDuration = expectedDuration;

        }

    }

 

    public class BookReturned

    {

        public readonly BookId Id;

        public readonly string By;

        public readonly TimeSpan After;

        public readonly bool Late;

 

        public BookReturned(BookId id, string @by, TimeSpan after,

             bool late)

        {

            Id = id;

            By = by;

            After = after;

            Late = late;

        }

    }

These events will usually be serialized to the event storage and on a service bus, but here everything runs in memory.

The Book Aggregate Root

The book will need to be referenced by an identity in our system. We’ll hide a Guid behind a BookId struct :

    public struct BookId : IEquatable<BookId>

    {

        private Guid id;

 

        private BookId(Guid id) { this.id = id; }

 

        public static BookId NewBookId() { return new BookId(Guid.NewGuid()); }

 

        public bool Equals(BookId other) { return other.id.Equals(id); }

 

        public override bool Equals(object obj)

        {

            if (ReferenceEquals(null, obj)) return false;

            if (obj.GetType() != typeof(BookId)) return false;

            return Equals((BookId)obj);

        }

 

        public override int GetHashCode() { return id.GetHashCode(); }

    }

Now, the Book class itself :

  public class Book : AggregateRoot<BookId>

  {

      private readonly BookId id;

      private string title;

      private string isbn;

      private string borrower;

      private DateTime date;

      private TimeSpan expectedDuration;

 

      public Book(BookId id, IEnumerable<object> events)

      {

          this.id = id;

          foreach (dynamic @event in events)

              Apply(@event);

      }

 

      public Book(BookId id, string title, string isbn)

      {

          this.id = id;

          var @event = new BookRegistered(id, title, isbn);

          Apply(@event);

          Append(@event);

      }

 

      public override BookId Id { get { return id; } }

 

      public void Lend(string borrower, DateTime date,

                              TimeSpan expectedDuration)

      {

          if (this.borrower != null)

              throw new InvalidOperationException("The book is already lent.");

          var @event =

                new BookLent(id, borrower, date, expectedDuration);

          Apply(@event);

          Append(@event);

      }

 

      public void Return(DateTime returnDate)

      {

          if (borrower == null)

              throw new InvalidOperationException("The book has not been lent.");

          if (returnDate < date)

              throw new ArgumentException(

                "The book cannot be returned before being lent.");

          var actualDuration = returnDate - date;

          var @event = new BookReturned(

                         id,

                         borrower,

                         actualDuration,

                         actualDuration > expectedDuration);

          Apply(@event);

          Append(@event);

      }

 

      private void Apply(BookRegistered @event)

      {

          title = @event.Title;

          isbn = @event.Isbn;

      }

 

      private void Apply(BookLent @event)

      {

          borrower = @event.Borrower;

          date = @event.Date;

          expectedDuration = @event.ExpectedDuration;

      }

 

      private void Apply(BookReturned @event)

      {

          borrower = null;

      }

  }

The class implements AggregateRoot<BookId> and so provides an explicitly implemented UncommittedEvents property.

The first .ctor is used to load the Aggregate Root, the second one is used to build a new Aggregate Root.

The public methods (Lend and Return) are the commands on the Aggregate Root as defined in the Ubiquitous Language.

The structure is always the same :

  1. Validate arguments and state
  2. Prepare state transition using domain logic
  3. Apply state transition (no domain logic should happen here)
  4. Append state transition to uncommitted events

The first .ctor uses dynamic to dispatch each event object on the corresponding specific Apply method. In case you implement the pattern is previous C# version, it is advised to provide a Replay method in the base class that will perform the dynamic dispatch based on reflection.

That’s all for the entity. No ORM, no mapping… easy.

The Repository

It is often clearer to provide a specific repository interface that exposes only available methods. With event sourcing, it’s not that useful… we’ll write it anyway in case you’d like to use dependency injection. The interface is part of the domain and should be in the same assembly as the entity and the events.

    public interface IBookRepository

    {

        void Add(Book book);

        Book this[BookId id] { get; }

    }

The implementation will simply derive from the Repository base class, it can be in the application assembly.

    internal class BookRepository :

        Repository<BookId, Book>,

        IBookRepository

    {

        protected override Book CreateInstance(BookId id,

            IEnumerable<object> events)

        {

            return new Book(id, events);

        }

    }

Add and the indexer are implemented by the base class. The only thing to provide is a way to instantiate the class with expected parameters.

We could use Activator.CreateInstance or reflection to provide a generic implementation. I choose to make it simpler to read.

The Query context

The Report Database

We’ll mimic a reporting table of book lent state :

This would be the data returned from table rows :

    public class BookState

    {

        public BookId Id { get; set; }

        public string Title { get; set; }

        public bool Lent { get; set; }

    }

And this will hide the data table implementation :

    public interface IBookStateQuery

    {

        IEnumerable<BookState> GetBookStates();

        BookState GetBookState(BookId id);

        IEnumerable<BookState> GetLentBooks();

 

        void AddBookState(BookId id, string title);

        void SetLent(BookId id, bool lent);

    }

We can simply query data to report in the UI, and update data state.

Implementation will be in memory for now :

    class BookStateQuery : IBookStateQuery

    {

        private readonly Dictionary<BookId, BookState> states =

                     new Dictionary<BookId, BookState>();

 

        public IEnumerable<BookState> GetBookStates()

        {

            return states.Values;

        }

 

        public BookState GetBookState(BookId id)

        {

            return states[id];

        }

 

        public IEnumerable<BookState> GetLentBooks()

        {

            return states.Values.Where(b => b.Lent);

        }

 

        public void AddBookState(BookId id, string title)

        {

            var state = new BookState { Id = id, Title = title };

            states.Add(id, state);

        }

 

        public void SetLent(BookId id, bool lent)

        {

            states[id].Lent = lent;

        }

    }

The important point here is that no domain logic occurs.

A RDBMS implementation could use an ORM or simply build DTOs from a DataReader.

The event handlers

We can now denormalize domain states to the reporting database using an event handler :

    class BookStateHandler :

    Handles<BookRegistered>,

    Handles<BookLent>,

    Handles<BookReturned>

    {

        private readonly IBookStateQuery stateQuery;

 

        public BookStateHandler(IBookStateQuery stateQuery)

        {

            this.stateQuery = stateQuery;

        }

 

        public void Handle(BookRegistered @event)

        {

            stateQuery.AddBookState(@event.Id, @event.Title);

        }

 

 

        public void Handle(BookLent @event)

        {

            Console.WriteLine("Book lent to {0}", @event.Borrower);

            stateQuery.SetLent(@event.Id, true);

        }

 

        public void Handle(BookReturned @event)

        {

            Console.WriteLine("Book returned by {0}", @event.By);

            stateQuery.SetLent(@event.Id, false);

        }

    }

The Console.WriteLine are here to view when things happen, you would usually not use it in your production code. Logging this would not provide much benefits since all the events are already stored in the EventStorage.

Using this handler, the IBookStateQuery will be up to date with current Command Context state. In an asynchronous environment, this is where eventual consistency is introduced.

We will also add a service that will notify when a user returned a book too late :

    class LateReturnNotifier :

    Handles<BookReturned>

    {

        public void Handle(BookReturned @event)

        {

            if (@event.Late)

            {

                Console.WriteLine("{0} was late", @event.By);

            }

        }

    }

Here again, no domain logic, we just do the infrastructure stuff, usually sending an email or a SMS.

View it in Action

    class Program

    {

        static void Main(string[] args)

        {

            ISessionFactory factory = new SessionFactory(new EventStorage());                IBookStateQuery query = new BookStateQuery();

 

            DomainEvents.RegisterHanlder(() => new BookStateHandler(query));

            DomainEvents.RegisterHanlder(() => new LateReturnNotifier());

 

            var bookId = BookId.NewBookId();

            using (var session = factory.OpenSession())

            {

                var books = new BookRepository();

                books.Add(new Book(bookId,

                   "The Lord of the Rings",

                   "0-618-15396-9"));

                session.SubmitChanges();

            }

 

            ShowBooks(query);

 

            using (var session = factory.OpenSession())

            {

                var books = new BookRepository();

                var book = books[bookId];

                book.Lend("Alice",

                     new DateTime(2009, 11, 2),

                     TimeSpan.FromDays(14));

 

                session.SubmitChanges();

            }

 

            ShowBooks(query);

 

 

            using (var session = factory.OpenSession())

            {

                var books = new BookRepository();

                var book = books[bookId];

                book.Return(new DateTime(2009, 11, 8));

 

                session.SubmitChanges();

            }

 

            ShowBooks(query);

 

 

            using (var session = factory.OpenSession())

            {

                var books = new BookRepository();

                var book = books[bookId];

                book.Lend("Bob",

                      new DateTime(2009, 11, 9),

                      TimeSpan.FromDays(14));

 

                session.SubmitChanges();

            }

 

            ShowBooks(query);

 

 

            using (var session = factory.OpenSession())

            {

                var books = new BookRepository();

                var book = books[bookId];

                book.Return(new DateTime(2010, 03, 1));

                session.SubmitChanges();

            }

 

            ShowBooks(query);

        }

 

        private static void ShowBooks(IBookStateQuery query)

        {

            foreach (var state in query.GetBookStates())

                Console.WriteLine("{0} is {1}.",

                       state.Title,

                       state.Lent ? "lent" : "home");

        }

    }

We start by instantiating storage for the command context (the ISessionFactory) and the query context (the IBookStateQuery). In production you’ll use persistent storages (a persistent event storage and a RDBMS). I highly recommend using a Dependency Injection Container for real size projects.

Then we wire the handlers on domain events.

The application can start.

  • We register a book in the library.
  • We lend it to Alice on 2009-11-02 for 14 days
  • She returns it on 2009-11-08, she’s on time
  • We lend it to Bob on 2009-11-09 for 14 days,
  • He returns it on 2010-03-01, he’s late

The output is the following :

The Lord of the Rings is home.    // written from state

Book lent to Alice                // written by the book state handler

The Lord of the Rings is lent.    // written from state

Book returned by Alice            // written by the book state handler

The Lord of the Rings is home.    // written from state

Book lent to Bob                  // written by the book state handler

The Lord of the Rings is lent.    // written from state

Book returned by Bob              // written by the book state handler

Bob was late                      // written by the late return notifier

The Lord of the Rings is home.    // written from state

We have here a clear separation between Command that handles the domain logic and Query that handles presentation logic.

Have fun. Questions and remarks expected !

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

Back on Repositories and Paging. Introducing reporting.

I had quite a lot of comments on my previous post on repositories and paging, and there’s a lot of people coming from google looking for answers… It’s sign that there’s no good response to this issue now.

The problem was how paging (a presentation concern) fits into a repository that should have only domain concerns…

And the short answers is… It doesn’t fit !

It doesn’t mean you should forget everything I told you before but there’s a vision change.

There’s something missing in DDD book…

but present in current discussion about DDD. The book provides good building blocks (entities, repository…) but Evans says himself it has been a bit over emphasized. The book is mainly about maintaining and mutating your domain state, not about it’s presentation.

CQS to the rescue

The CQS (Command Query Separation) principle proposes to decouple Commands that change the state of the system, from Queries that ask the state of the system.

The repository lies on the Command side, that’s why :

  • It should be specialized to express only mutations that are possible for the system
  • It should not expose presentation concerns like paging

But what’s on the Query side ?

The query side should be far more supple and provide tools to query the state of the domain. It can even be implemented with IQueryable interfaces to provide that flexibility. Asking for pages in this area is natural since you just want to query a part of the domain state.

The goal of all this is to report the state of the system. So Reporting is a good name here.

You can read Greg Young’s DDDD posts to see where CQS can lead : Write only domain model (Commands) and rich scalable distributed Query mechanisms using messaging.

There’s no clear guidance yet in this field but I’m still investigating. The flexibility of a reporting service in the domain layer is still a huge gain to understand where each concept fits.